Geoffrey L. Gogan, Architect

"Well crafted, appropriate, budget conscious design"


Construction Tecnology is categorized into 16 Divisions reflected here.  They follow the sequence of construction from the ground up, framing, systems, finishes...  We maintain an extensive set of links, but will occasionally share a few here.   These sites have a lot of useful articles on construction technology - in all divisions.


Division 1:  General Conditions - Contract provisions: 


Division 2: Site Work, Retaining walls, Patios, Outdoor cooking, Pools, Pavers, Driveways, Gates etc. 
Storm Water Control,  Grey Water systems, Harvesting and storing rain water for landscaping or flushing Dry wells, and recently, Driveways and walks with snow melting cables below them


Division 3: Concrete, Footings, Walls, Slabs
We design typical Concrete Block, Reinforced Concrete, ICF - Styrofoam stay in place forms,
and are starting to use Superior Prefabricated Foundation Walls


Division 4: Masonry, Concrete Block, Brick, Natural and Cultured Stone, Fireplaces  


Division 5: Metals- Structural Steel, Miscellaneous Steel connectors etc, Cold Formed Light Ga. Steel Framing 
Most houses are framed with wood.  There are pros and cons.  It's inexpensive, well known by many crews, but it does interrupt insulation, can become "Mold or Termite food", can rot, twist, shrink etc.   
Another alternative is light guage metal stud framing.  You need continuous insulation outside, but it is lighter than wood, won't rust, is fireproof, dimensionally stable, but it does require a trained crew.  Metal studs have been used in the Commercial area for years, so many tradesmen are familiar with it.  There are a few tricks to making it work.
Since it can be part of a fireproof or "Non-comubstable" system, there may be significant insurance discounts 


Division 6: Wood Framing, Finish Carpentry, Stairs, Guard Rails, Decks 
We still use a lot of conventional Doug. Fir. framing for walls, floors and roofs.  Most houses now incorporate man-made wood products such as I-Beams, LVL lumber etc.  These are considered "Green" or "Sustainable" becuase they are made from smaller trees that are easily farmed and renewed.  A few drawbacks - Veneer plywood webs can lose structural stablility quickly when burning, so they must be protected.  Formaldehyde based adhesives are used, causing potential out-gasing.  Structural integrity relies on these for the long term.  Moisture can lower the structural strength. The webs must be reinforced where vertical loads pass through them.  
We look at open web joists with solid sawn flanges top and bottom as another alternative.


Division 7: Thermal and Moisture, Insulations, Moisture/ Weather barriers, Siding, Roofing
Insulation is really a great low cost way to improve a building's performance.  Higher densities with better R-values are now specified for the attic and exterior walls.  There are some potential health concerns for workers breathing the dust, and fiberglass requires an additional vapor barrier and more wall thickness to achieve a good resistance to heat transfer.
Certainteed offers great products.  They are well researched, warranted and recyclable:
Other insulations include Rigid foam, but it must be encased and protected from fire.  Some taste good to termites.
Several spray applications exist such as recycled rag, recycled newspaper or cellulose, and closed cell polyurethanes and similar foams such as Icynene.  We used the Icynene and I learned that it does't burn, and is made from safe ingredients - can actually be eaten.   The foams offer excellent resistance to infiltration, noise and moisture, and the provide R-7 per inch, but they are quite a bit more expensive than Fiberglass batts.
Siding is usually applied over an acceptable "House wrap" material and can include Vinyl, Wood, Cement board, Stucco, Stone etc. We are always staying abreast of the latest developments and reported problems with products such as EIFS or "Thin-skin stucco", commonly called "Drivit".  Most manufacturers have updated their details and addressed any negative reports from the early systems.
Roofing is commonly dimensional asphalt shingles, but there are many looks, thicknesses, weights and warranties.
There are some nice man-made light weight "slates", tile, aluminum, and other metal roofs also available.


Division 8: Windows and Doors, Garage Doors, Skylights, Hardware 


Division 9: Finishes- Gyp board, coverings, Flooring, Tile, Stone, Vinyl, Ceilings 


Division 10: Specialties 


Division 11: Equipment incl. Kitchens, cabinets 


Division 12: Furnishings


Division 13: Special Construction 


Division 14:  Conveying Systems  


Division 15: Mechanical - Plumbing, HVAC 


Division 16: Electrical